Thus, teaching necessarily begins with a teacher’s understanding of what is to be learned and how it is to be taught” (p. 7). He argues that teaching requires knowledge of the content, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge … Knowledge of educational ends, purposes, and values, and their philosophical and historical grounds (p. 8), (MY THOUGHTS – I could use this as a framework for Helen!). Excerpt from Shulman, L. (1986). “To advance the aims of organized schooling, materials and structures for teaching and learning are created. This idea represents a new, broader perspective in ou… 13-14). As such, pedagogical knowledge requires an understanding of cognitive, social, and developmental theories of learning and how they apply to students in the classroom. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK, Shulman, 1986) bridges the content/skills canon of a discipline, the student learners, and the most effective instructional strategies. The concept of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) was developed by Lee Shulman in the mid-1980s. Time must be there in order to think). It is the wisdom of practice itself, the maxims that guide (or provide reflective rationalization for) the practices of able teachers. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK, Shulman, 1986) bridges the content/skills canon of a discipline, the student learners, and the most effective instructional strategies. It is defined as the integration or amalgamation of pedagogy and content which basically covers the ‘what’ and ‘how’ of teaching. So they need to know what makes learning specific topics easy or difficult. In Shulman’s view, pedagogical content knowledge is a form of practical knowledge that is used by teachers to guide their actions in highly contextualized classroom settings. (MY THOUGHTS – Rationale for contextually-specific knowledge or cultural knowledge). Pedagogical content knowledge requires an understanding of where students are coming from in reference to the subject being taught. PCK is consistent with and similar to Shulman’s idea of knowledge of pedagogy that is applicable to the teaching of specific content. $V���2�ˁ�(�A�q�r!�5���,��1~d�g�cqc�c�b{�l�p��3s��:F��&��h`��2�d�g�aZ It is different from the knowledge of a disciplinary expert and from general pedagogical knowledge. (MY THOUGHTS – I could write the paper on Helen and knowledge using this as a rationale). Shulman (1995) defines content knowledge as the knowledge about the subject, for example mathematics and its structure. Time!!! ). “Fenstermacher (1978, 1986) provides a useful framework for analysis. h�b```a``����� �� Ā B@V �8���� `Q���p瀦�7�ÎN9Ɍ��.hx����050���{��������a�v�з)/>td�$V{�T��n3ػ��F�խQFs���nl�ռ���eۡ�=��[����o/>��x�y�!��k7��g��s�m;&���ѫۙ~S�w��]�y�c�!���V?�rR``N� �0ŠV��aq� B`ND5��&� Pedagogical content knowledge includes . Sound reasoning requires both a process of thinking about what they are doing and an adequate base of facts, principles, and experiences from which to reason. What are the courses of the knowledge base for teaching? “Teaching processes were observed and evaluated without reference to the adequacy or accuracy of the ideas transmitted. Content knowledge, on the other hand, is the “what” of teaching. (MY THOUGHTS – I could use that rationale for studying those who are learning to supervise.). This article reports the authors’efforts to develop a practice-based theory of content knowledge for teaching built on Shulman’s (1986) notion of pedagogical content knowledge. He argued that, on top of subject knowledge and general pedagogical skills, teachers must know how to … It builds upon the work of Lee Shulman and extends his idea of Pedagogical Content Knowledge. In Shulman’s (1987) words, “Pedagogical content knowledge is the category most likely to distinguish the understanding of the con- tent specialist from the pedagogue” (p. 8). The TPACK approach goes beyond seeing these three knowledge bases in isolation. He stated that teacher-training programs were separating the what (content) from the how (pedagogy) when preparing teachers for the field. This diagram shows how Shulman’s Knowledge-based theory correlates with the TPACK (Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge) ineffective teaching. %PDF-1.6 %���� acter of such knowledge. He stated that teacher-training programs were separating the what (content) from the how (pedagogy) when preparing teachers for the field. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) plays an important role in classroom instructions. Knowledge of educational contexts “…ranging from the workings of the group or classroom, the governance and financing of school districts, to the character of communities and cultures” (p. 8). Shulman defined pedagogical content knowledge as teachers’ interpretations and transformations of subject-matter knowledge in the context of facilitating student learning. In what terms can these sources be conceptualized? (MY THOUGHTS – Relate to supervision and hybrids and Miller studies? An introduction to Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) The concept of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) was developed by Lee Shulman in the mid-1980s. (MY THOUGHTS – He is giving a rationale for content expertise for those who observe teaching practices.). (MY THOUGHTS – What is the matrix for hybrids? Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Over the course of Shulman and his colleagues’work, the categories for teacher knowledge underwent a number of revisions. “The teacher can transform understanding, performance skills, or desired attitudes or values into pedagogical representations and actions. Pedagogical content knowledge is the category most likely to distinguish the understanding of the content specialist from that of the pedagogue. Their development from students to teachers, from a state of expertise as learners through a novitiate a teachers exposes and highlights the complex bodies of knowledge and skill needed to function effectively as a teacher” (p. 4). . The Technology, Pedagogy and Content Knowledge model or TPACK for short has been around for some time. Matthew Koehler and Punya Mishra expand upon this in much more detail on their site http://tpack.org and on the site there are lot of links to other scholarly articles related to this topic.In my work, I’ve been trying to apply these th… What are the processes of pedagogical reasoning and action? Shulman (1986) distinguishes 3 categories of knowledge: (1) subject matter, (2) content knowledge, (3) pedagogical content knowledge. pedagogical content knowledge. “Wisdom of practice. Pedagogical content knowledge is the category most likely to distinguish the understanding of the content specialist from that of the pedagogue" (Shulman, 1987, p. 4). As the concept of pedagogical content knowledge caught on, it was in need of theoretical development, analytic clarification, and empirical testing. What are the implications for teaching policy and educational reform? PCK is situated at the intersection of what is taught and how it is taught, with a recognition that each field has its own methods of discourse and inquiry. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1-22. He has made notable contributions to the study of teaching, assessment of teaching, and the fields of medicine, science and mathematics. Pedagogical Content Knowledge This article by Matthew Koehler connects the work of Shulman to the TPACK Model. • Pedagogical content knowledge, that special amalgam of content and pedagogy that is uniquely the province of teachers, their own special form of professional understanding (Shulman, 1987, p. 8; quoted in Ball et al, 2008, p. 391) 12. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and content knowledge (CK) are key components of teacher competence that affect student progress. Or of supervisors who develop expertise?). (MY THOUGHTS – What composes pedagogy? 1109 0 obj <>stream This is or should be a goal fo supervision. Pedagogical content knowledge Shulman describes pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) as: The blending of content and pedagogy into an understanding of how particular topics, problems, or issues are organized, represented, and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners, and presented for instruction. “One of the frustrations of teaching as an occupation and profession is its extensive individual and collective amnesia, the consistency with which the best creations of its practitioners are lost to both contemporary and future peers” (p. 11). h�ԛi�\Ǖ��J~�`h��$Ғ8m-6奝�%�,�&�. ), 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, EDU105, Tampa, FL 33620  |  rebeccaburns@usf.edu, 20002009, 2003, constructivist, LambertL, leadership, principals, professional development, teacher leadership. In this paper, I present an argument regarding the content, character, and Koehler indicates that although Shulman does not include technology in his theories, it is the intersection of content and pedagogy that technology should support as a tool. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. “Indeed, our exemplary teachers present ideas in order to provoke the constructive processes of their students and not to incur student dependence on teachers or to stimulate the flatteries of imitation” (pp. Teacher tests began including items intended to assess teachers’ pck, researchers began proposing projects to document such knowledge. “Perhaps the most enduring and powerful scholarly influences on teachers are those that enrich their images of the possible: their visions of what constitutes good education, ro what a well-educated youngster might look like if provided with appropriate opportunities and stimulation” (p. 10). The term pedagogical content knowledge was coined by Lee Shulman in the mid-80s. Keywords: pedagogical content knowledge, teaching TESL, university faculty 1. endstream endobj startxref “While many characteristics of effective teachers exist, most of these dwell on the teacher’s management of the classroom. Shulman (1987) calls this pedagogical content knowledge. Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Social Studies. One portion of Shulman's pedagogical content knowledge construct is knowing what makes a subject difficult and what preconceptions students are apt to bring. (MY THOUGHTS – But!!! Definition of knowledge base: “The advocates of professional reform base their arguments on the belief that there exists a ‘knowledge base for teaching’ – a codified or codifiable aggregation of knowledge, skill, understanding, and technology, of ethics and disposition, of collective responsibility – as well as a means for representing and communicating it” (p.4). The pointed arrow from general Pedagogical Knowledge points to effective teaching and re-pointing to the Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) of TPACK. (MY THOUGHTS – This would be a change for clinical education.). . In many cases, observers were not expected to have content expertise in the areas being observed, because it did not matter for the rating of teacher performance. Shulman, 1987, page 8 This paper focuses on the relevance of building “pedagogical content knowledge” (PCK) (Shulman, 1986) during the training of Portuguese visual arts teachers.Visual arts teachers in Portugal are visual artists who do not explicitly acquire, during their formal education, a pedagogical knowledge of what they are meant to teach. At the heart of the TPACK framework, is the complex interplay of three primary forms of knowledge: Content (CK), Pedagogy (PK), and Technology (TK). Because teachers necessarily function within a matrix created by these elements, using and being used by them it stands to reason that the principles, policies, and facts of their function comprise a major source for the knowledge base” (p. 9). easy-to-learn ESL pedagogical knowledge. Pedagogical content knowledge, or PCK, as it is often called, is a construct coined by Lee Shulman (1938–) in the mid-1980s to emphasize the importance of studying teacher professional knowledge, and teacher knowledge of subject matter in particular. Pedagogical content knowledge Le Shulman (1987) introduced pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) by merging the two important skills of theoretical knowledge and pedagogical methods required by teachers. Summary: In this essay, Shulman makes a case that teaching has a knowledge base. Relationship between the four general areas of teacher knowledge (Wilson, Shulman, & Richert, 1987, p. 118). The term pedagogical content knowledge was coined by Lee Shulman in the mid-80s. He argued that, on top of subject knowledge and general pedagogical skills, teachers must know how to teach topics in ways that learners can understand. Findings yielded by the research of  In Shulman’s view, pedagogical content knowledge is a form of practical knowledge that is used by teachers to guide their actions in highly contextualized classroom settings. More than 25 years ago, Lee Shulman introduced the concept of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) to describe the knowledge that teachers use to transform particular subject matter for student learning , taking into account possible (mis) conceptions and learning difficulties. (This could support the AACTE paper). He claims that these compose what he calls pedagogical content knowledge, and in this article, he articles what teachers should “know, do, understand, or profess” (p.4), something previously assumed and unarticulated in the rhetoric of educational reformers regarding the knowledge base of teaching. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 31, 59‐70. (MY THOUGHTS – The scholar from the practitioner with the ideal blend in teacher education being scholarly practitioners?/ Blue Ribbon Panel Report requires teacher educators to be practitioners. Shulman, L. (1987). The concept of pedagogical content knowledge, which Shulman introduced as a hypothesis as president of the American Educational Research Association in 1985, became popular very quickly. The role of teacher's pedagogical content knowledge in social studies is addressed through two case studies: a novice and a veteran teacher. According to Shulman (1986), PCK represented the knowledge to represent and formulate subjects to make it understandable for others. The goal of teacher education, he argues, is not to indoctrinate or train teachers to behave in prescribed ways, but to educate teachers to reason soundly about their teaching as well as to perform skillfully. PCK is situated at the intersection of what is taught and how it is taught, with a recognition that each field has its own methods of discourse and inquiry. The final source of the knowledge base is the least codified of all. “He (Piaget) discovered that he could learn a great deal about knowledge and its development from careful observation of the very young – those who were just beginning to develop and organize their intelligence. %%EOF Carlsen, 1987; Grossman, Wilson, & Shulman, 1989; Gudmundsdottir, 1987a, 1987b; Gudmundsdottir & Shulman, 1987; Marks, 1990). It is different from the knowledge of a disciplinary expert and from general pedagogical knowledge. Pedagogical content knowledge includes . “Pedagogical content knowledge is the category most likely to distinguish the understanding of the content specialist from that of the pedagogue” (p. 8). Introduction For the last 20 years, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has been a focus of research in the literature of teacher knowledge (Magnusson, Krajcik & Borko, 1999; Shulman, 1986). h�bbd```b``�"��H&0[�0�d����H֏`�1X���3��_ &g�H�`��n V�W�\� 2���P �h� 6-D�L�4���k�������lm09H�k\������l�#�3��~` �1� Shulman (1987) calls this pedagogical content knowledge. Teacher tests began including items intended to assess teachers’ pck, researchers began proposing projects to document such knowledge. (MY THOUGHTS – Can we create these descriptions of PSTs and developing expertise? PCK was considered as the missing paradigm in the study of teaching. In addition to teachers' subject matter (content) knowledge and their general knowledge of instructional methods (pedagogical knowledge),pedagogical content knowledge was originally suggested as a third major component of teaching expertise, by Lee Shulman (1986; 1987) and his colleagues and students (e.g. We find few descriptions of analyses of teachers that give careful attention not only to the management of students in classrooms, but also to the management of ideas within classroom discourse” (p. 1). These are ways of talking, showing, enacting, or otherwise representing ideas so that the unknowing can come to know, those without understanding can comprehend and discern, and the unskilled can become adept. 0 Lee Shulman's model of pedagogical reasoning and action is related to his theory of pedagogical content knowledge and includes the following components: comprehension; transformation (preparation, representation, selection, and adaptation and tailoring to student characteristics); instruction; evaluation; reflection; and new comprehensions. 10. . One of the more important tasks for the research community is to work with practitioners to develop codified representations of the practical pedagogical wisdom of able teachers” (p. 11). Summary: In this essay, Shulman makes a case that teaching has a knowledge base. “But, as we have wrestled with our cases, we have repeatedly asked hat teachers knew (or failed to know) that permitted them to teach in a particular manner” (p.5). Teachers must learn to use their knowledge base to provide the grounds for choices and actions” (p. 13). The TPACK framework goes further by emphasizing the kinds of knowledge that lie at the intersections between three primary forms: Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), Technological Content Kn… 1077 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<8E8D47ABEDF7BC49B6F15D8C666DAD53>]/Index[1046 64]/Info 1045 0 R/Length 139/Prev 431332/Root 1047 0 R/Size 1110/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Lee S. Shulman is an American educational psychologist. These include : curricula with their scopes and sequences; tests and testing materials; institutions with their hierarchies, their explicit and implicit systems of rules and roles; professional teachers’ organizations with their functions of negotiation, social change, and mutual protection; government agencies from the district through the sstate and federal levels; and general mechanisms of governance and finance. 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